Off-duty affiliations refer to the personal relationships and activities of a police officer outside of their professional duties. This type of police misconduct can occur when an officer engages in behavior or affiliations that are in conflict with their professional duties, or that bring discredit to the police department or the criminal justice system as a whole. For example, an officer who is a member of a hate group or who engages in criminal activity outside of their professional duties can be considered to be engaged in off-duty misconduct. Law enforcement agencies must establish clear policies regarding off-duty affiliations and behavior, and hold officers accountable for their actions. Off-duty affiliations can also result in criminal charges against the officer, as well as internal disciplinary action by the police department.